LAO PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC
Peace Independence Democracy Unity Prosperity
|National Assembly||No. 08/NA|
|Vientiane Capital, 21 December 2011|
HYGIENE, DISEASE PREVENTION
AND HEALTH PROMOTION
This Law determines the principles, rules and measures relating to the organization and activities on hygiene disease prevention and health promotion in order to maintain the good health, quality of life and longevity of the citizens, aiming at reduction of the rates of morbidity and mortality; prevention of diseases of all types; internal, regional and international integrations; and access to networks of hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion for reaching international standards and contribution into the national protection and development.
Hygiene refers to cleaning and eliminating all things which are dangerous and potentially hazardous to physical, mental and social health of human beings, such as personal hygiene, food hygiene, house hygiene, clothing hygiene and others.
Disease prevention refers to the application of efficient measures and procedures to prevent the occurrence of diseases or to restrict their spread and to reduce their severity and danger.
Health promotion refers to the process of the increase of people’s knowledge, capacity and awareness in the control, care and development of individuals, families, collectives and the society for health improvement through behavioral changing, creating favorable conditions, and defining the principles of application of relevant measures for lifestyle improvement by taking into account of health education as the core.
Terms used in this Law shall have the following meanings:
The State gives importance and pays attention to the care and promotion of health of the multi-ethnic people, including women and children, disable persons by providing knowledge and information, by encouraging and mobilizing and expanding hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion in both public and private sectors and by promoting the community and private sectors to contribute in the nationwide development of health service system with good quality.
The State promotes all social and economic sectors for both domestic and foreign countries to invest in hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion by issuing appropriate policies, regulations and measures in accordance with the laws and regulations.
The State organizes a disease surveillance system, investigation and early identification of disease by issuing the strategic plans to prevent disease epidemic and to timely prevent and control in case of disease outreach occurrence.
The hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion activities shall be carried out in compliance with the main principles as follows:
All citizens, regardless of ethnic origin, gender, age, or socio-economic status, shall have the rights of receipt of information and instructions on hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion, and the rights of
access to health services, and shall have the obligations to care one’s self, families and society and to actively contribute to hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion activities.
This Law applies to both domestic and foreign individuals, legal entities, including organizations that earn their livings and carry out their activities in the Lao PDR.
The State promotes the relation and cooperation with foreign countries, regional and international organizations on hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion activities through exchange of experiences, information, science and technology research and trainings, staff capacity building and improvement, assistance and other cooperation.
Hygiene is a necessity and a duty of all everyone in the society aiming to prevent the diseases and to promote the health throughout the society. It has an importance for the daily living conditions of the people, in which those who have good hygiene shall be reduced from diseases and shall have a good quality of life, liveliness and longevity.
Individuals, families and communities shall draw their attention to hygiene keeping in habitual and regular manner.
Hygiene is comprised of:
- Hygiene of persons, families or communities;
- Hygiene of drinking and domestic water, food and consumption goods;
- Hygiene of buildings, hotels, guesthouses and restaurants;
- Hygiene of schools and other educational institutions;
- Hygiene of health care facilities
- Hygiene of labor and occupation, production, construction and maintenance sites and industries;
- Hygiene of public places, markets, funerals;
- Environmental health;
- Hygiene of detention places.
Personal hygiene refers to taking care of oneself physical and mental health to avoid sickness or disease and to be able to live in normal life in the society.
All persons shall pay attention to their own cleanliness, eating, drinking, excrement discharging, dressing, sleeping, working, physical exercising and resting, including proper sexual intercourse, in accordance with hygiene principles.
Family hygiene refers to care of families so that all family members to clean their houses to be in orderliness, beauty and attractively habitable.
Each family shall draw its attention to create conditions to ensure access to drinking and domestic water, nutritive and safe food, hygienic latrines, proper and clothes; to bring its children for health examination and for treatment when sickness; to ensure the compliance with the three cleans; to give education on the dangers of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking; to avoid the use of narcotics and sexual transmitted diseases and to be a healthy family model.
Community hygiene refers to the joint keeping of cleanliness and beauty within a given unit, group, village, district or city.
All people in a community have the obligations to dispose of solid wastes and treat wastewater, and to preserve the cleanliness of water sources, drinking water, domestic water, roads, sewers and public places, such as toilet rooms or water-closets, in order to avoid the occurrence of disease and ensure orderliness and beauty for their own and community health.
Hygiene of Drinking and Domestic Water refers to a process water treatment such as boiling, filtration, disinfectant, water production and services in accordance with the standards of drinking and domestic water as determined by the Ministry of Health.
Water for daily use must originate from water sources, such as: urban water supply systems, dug well, rainwater, borehole, gravity fed system, springs, hot springs, rivers, streams and others. Such water of all types shall be assured in terms of cleanliness and safety.
Article 15(Amended). Hygiene of Food and Consumption Goods
Hygiene in relation to food and consumer goods refers to the processed inspection and control of food and consumer goods to maintain their cleanliness and safety from microbes, parasites and toxic chemical substances with harmful effects to health and physical growth in human life.
Individuals and organizations that undertake the processing of food and food products, food packaging, storing, transferring and services shall guarantee proper quality in accordance with production standards and principles of hygiene.
Producers and sellers of food shall be first subject to health examination and shall obtain a health certificate and shall not be authorized to distribute or sell the expired food. Locally produced or imported food and consumption goods shall be inspected by the concerned authorities and shall comply with the relevant laws and regulations.
Hygiene in relation to building facilities refers to the keeping of the cleanliness and beauty of the buildings and the arrangement of the orderliness of houses, offices; and spaces under and surrounding the residential houses in order to earn the living and to perform the work without any pollutions and risks of infectious disease.
The location of the building facilities and their premises shall be ensured in termsof tranquility and safety from communicable diseases, pollution and other nuisance.
To ensure proper cleanliness of building facilities in accordance with the principles of hygiene, the interior of houses and offices shall be provided with sufficient light and air ventilation. The building facilities shall be routinely cleaned and equipped with latrines, tanks or bins of wastes and proper sewage facilities; arrangement of dumping ground; disposal of solid waste and treatment of wastewater shall be made properly and routinely, and no animal enclosures shall be placed under the houses; and all domestic animals shall be kept in specific enclosures and shall not be left in public places. Harvested crops shall be kept in proper places.
Individuals, legal entities or organizations shall be responsible for the hygiene of building facilities, houses, and offices to ensure their constant orderliness and beauty.
Hygiene in relation to hotels, guesthouses and restaurants refers to maintainin the cleanliness, orderliness and safety.
Hotels, guesthouses and restaurants must be located in appropriate areas that are safe from infectious diseases, accidents, nuisance and all types of hazards.
Rooms shall be provided in sufficient and appropriate number for guests and with sufficient light and air ventilation, and shall be equipped with latrines in sufficient number and met the principles of hygiene. They must be equipped with bathrooms, lavatories, sewers facilities, tanks or bins of wastes, a proper waste disposal system and sufficient drinking and domestic water.
The business operators shall be responsible for maintaining of cleanliness, beauty and orderliness of hotels, guesthouses and restaurants and for safety of the guests away from infectious disease.
Hotels, guesthouses and restaurants shall be complied with the hygiene standards authorized for relevant business.
Hygiene in relation to schools and educational institutions refers to maintaining the cleanliness, beauty and orderliness of the schools and educational institutions.
Schools and educational institutions shall be located at the places assured away from external nuisance, infectious diseases, accidents and hazards, and shall be equipped with sport grounds and places for rest.
The buildings of schools and educational institutions shall be provided with sufficient appropriate spaces for the number of students, and shall be equipped with sufficient light and air ventilation and with tables and chairs adequate for students of given ages.
Teachers, pupils, students and the relevant organizations shall guarantee that schools and educational institutions are maintained in constant cleanliness, and are supplied with drinking and domestic water, water for hand washing and with hygienic latrines and with other necessary facilities in accordance with the principles of hygiene. Moreover, health examinations shall be systematically organized for pupils and students at least once a year.
Childcare centers and kindergartens shall also follow the same principles.
Hygiene of health care facilities, such as hospitals, dispensaries, clinics and pharmacies refers to maintaining the cleanliness, orderliness and beauty of such facilities.
A health care facility shall be a model of cleanliness and beauty and shall be complied with the hygiene principles and shall be free from disease transmission from patients, instruments, tools and medical equipment, and shall be equipped with latrines sufficient drinking and domestic water, a system for wastewater treatment, and a syetem for waste segregation, storage and disposal areas.
Hygiene of labor and occupation refers to taking care and inspection of work environment of the workers and business operators in order to protect their health in the industrial, agricultural, handicraft and other sectors from diseases, toxic chemicals and radioactive materials which are hazardous to the health or life of workers and people in the vicinity.
The employers shall provide safety equipment to workers and shall ensure the hygiene of the work places, mainly, provision of sufficient light and air ventilation, appropriate temperature, humidity, vibration, noise, odor and dust that shall not be over the standards provided by relevant regulation.
Employees and business operators, particularly in the sectors of activities which are hazardous to health, shall be protected, received health examinations, treatment and health care in accordance with the laws and regulations.
Hygiene of production refers to ensuring the conditions and standards in the production of consumption goods to be free from germs and toxic chemical residues which could be hazardous to consumer health, especially in relation to goods for daily consumption, children’s toys and cosmetics.
Individuals, legal entities and organizations producing the consumption goods shall comply with technical standards for production, waste disposal management techniques and principles of hygiene in order to avoid hazards to human health and the environment.
Hygiene in relation to construction and maintenance sites and Industries refers to the implementation of necessary measures and methods in consistent with the principles of hygiene in the construction of roads, construction and maintenance of buildings and industries in order to prevent the hazards to the health or life of workers, neighboring peoples and passers-by.
To ensure the safety, cleanliness and accessibility of construction or maintenance sites, the owner or person responsible for a construction or maintenance site shall install l warning signs, fences, curtains or nets around such sites or provide watering to prevent construction materials, dirt or dust from falling or flying out from such sites.
Hygiene in relation to public places refers to maintaining cleanliness, beauty and orderliness of public places reserved for public gathering, entertainment and rest, such as temples, sacred sites, monuments, public parks, tourism sites, theatres, sport grounds, airports, ports, markets, parking lots, roads and places for different events.
Individuals, legal entities or organizations shall be strictly responsible for complying with the rules provided for such public places.
Hygiene in relation to markets refers to the implementation of necessary measures and methods to keep markets clean, safe and in tidy order with the aim of ensuring the cleanliness of each type of goods.
Markets shall be located at appropriate places and far away from dirty sources, cemeteries and animal growing areas. Markets shall cover wide areas and shall have an easily accessible road, sufficient light and air ventilation, a wastewater system, waste storage and disposal system, water supply and clean latrines with sufficient number. Markets shall also be equipped with secure parking lots, and a proper system for the display of commodities, such as dry food, fresh food, goods for daily consumption and others.
The market arrangement people, individuals and organizations bringing commodities for sale in the market shall be responsible for the compliance with hygiene principles.
Hygiene in relation to funerals refers to a process of compliance with the hygiene principle relating to corpses to prevent the spread of germs from the corpse keeping, transportation to burial or incineration. The corpses shall be injected, covered and put in coffin in order to prevent bad odor or spread of germs.
During the movement, incineration and bury of the corpses or ashes through the territory of the Lao PDR shall ensure the hygiene principles.
Environmental health refers to the methods applied to improve the relationship between the environment and human beings in terms of physical, mental and social health.
Individuals, legal entities and organizations concerned shall pay their attention to ensuring the hygiene of animal enclosures, animal slaughterhouses, pollution control, rodent and insect borne diseases, nuisance, solid and wastewater disposal.
Individuals, families, collectives and organizations shall protect and develop the environment by having hygiene in order to protect their own health and other persons’ health.
Hygiene of detention places refers to keeping the cleanliness and tidy orderliness within the detention places in order to ensure that no disease contamination affected to the accused and sentenced persons.
The disease prevention is a primarily principal activity and a social responsibility and has an importance in preventing the occurrence or widespread of diseases by means of surveillance and compliance with the disease prevention principles.
All persons, families, communities and social organizations shall have the dut and responsibility to actively participate in and contribute to disease prevention.
Disease prevention is comprised of the following activities:
Preventive immunization or administration of drops refers to building-up the physical immune systems of the multi-ethnic people by using vaccines in the form of injections and drop administration to prevent tuberculosis, hepatitis, poliomyelitis, pertussis, diphtheria, measles, tetanus and other diseases.
Preventive immunization and drop administration is necessary for women and children under five years, of whom their parent or custodians shall attentively bring them to vaccination and drop administration.
Prevention and control of communicable diseases refers to preventing the occurrence of diseases to be affected to human beings and to communities and to prevent the spread of diseases from one person to another, from animals and insects to human beings and from one place to another.
Individuals, families, administrative authorities and all social organizations shall comply with the principles of prevention and control of communicable diseases. When symptoms of epidemics occur in their location, immediate measures shall be urgently taken and situation shall be reported to higher authorities for timely solution
The prevention of non-communicable diseases refers to hygienically healthy behavior or lifestyle to avoid the occurrence of non- communicable diseases, such as non excessive smoking and alcohol drinking, and gymnastic and sport exercise in order to avoid all risk factors of the occurrence of non-communicable diseases and other diseases.
Health promotion refers to the creating an environment favorable to the good health of all people. Health promotion is essential to render the strong physical body and wealthy and mentally animated. All citizens shall be responsible and duties to make their own strong health. All sectors, mass organizations and local administrations shall contribute jointly with the health sectors in promoting and creating conditions favorable to public health promotion.
Article 34(Amended). Elements of Health Promotion
Health promotion includes:
- Health education;
- Mother and child health promotion;
- Youth and reproductive health promotion;
- Health promotion for elderly, handicapped and disabled persons;
- Nutrition; - Sports, gymnastics and arts;
- Arrangement of public parks and green spaces, rest and touristic areas.
Health education refers to the process of dissemination, education and provision of information, knowledge and instruction on health issues to all citizens in order to ensure such understanding and awareness of hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion that are likely to change the views, behavior and lifestyle of persons, families and communities to strengthen their health.
Organizations involved in health, education, sport, information, culture and tourism, and other organizations of both public and private sectors are responsible for disseminating and providing health education and knowledge to the population on a regular basis by various means, including inclusion of heath education into the school curriculum.
Women and children health promotion is a priority activity of the health sector, as well as the obligations and responsibilities of all everyone, all sectors and organizations at all levels, and in particular of the children’s parent and custodians.
All women and children, mainly in remote areas, are entitled to receive health services which are comprised of hygiene, disease prevention, treatment and health rehabilitation at the time before their wedding, pregnancy, delivery and post partum. Children shall receive care and support in all cases, including twins, children with no full term birth and children with anomalies at birth, from their birth through their school, youth and reproductive age to ensure full physical, mental, emotional and social health of both mothers and children.
Women in their youth and adults and children under five years shall undergo health examinations and immunization as required by the regulations. During pregnancy, screening, antenatal care visit and monitoring of children health at bellies shall be provided. If any risk is discovered, remedial measures must be planned and hard work shall be avoided. Before and after child delivery, rest shall be prescribed as appropriate and in accordance with the laws and regulations. Delivery shall take place in hospitals or dispensaries. In case of necessity of delivery at home, such delivery shall be under the care of midwife, experienced childbirth assistant or trained midwives in order to ensure the safety of such mother and child.
Newly born infants shall mainly be fed by the breastfeeding of their mothers only from the birthday to six months, and afterward, food supplements may be given in concurrence with the mother’s breastfeeding until the child has reached two years of ages.
To promote the health of women and children, both female and male shall pay attention to family planning.
Youth and adult are in period of physical and intellectual growth. Youth and adult health promotion is important in enabling the full physical, intellectual and mental health of people in their youth and adult.
Youth and adult shall receive correct information on health through practicing the sports and gymnastics, and performance of arts and literature. Youth and adult shall pay attention to knowledge and awareness of family planning and sexual intercourse safety, pregnancy, delivery and methods of child care.
Families, schools, and professional and social organizations of both public and private sectors shall pay attention to education and promotion of youth and adult’s health.
Elderly persons refer to persons with diminished strength and physical force and poor health and as a result, a close monitoring of their health is essentially required.
Families, organizations and the society shall pay attention to the health of elderly persons by providing appropriate health examination and appropriate care and creating favorable conditions for their appropriate living and rest.
Handicapped and disable persons refer to persons who have not full physical formation and mental abilities like normal persons, to whom the society and administrative authorities at all levels shall pay attention to their health care by providing regular health examination in order to improve their living conditions and their contribution to social affairs.
All persons shall consume the balanced and diversified food and complete group of food, such as protein (meat, fish, soybean...), sugar, flour, fat, vitamins, minerals, iodized salt, vegetables and fruits in order to ensure the physical growth and health strength.
Sports, gymnastics and arts are important for all genders and ages in promoting health strength, liveliness, physical immunization creation and longevity.
Individuals and all organizations shall participate in sport and gymnastic exercise and artistic performance in various types, forms and levels. Sports, gymnastics and arts shall be included in the curricula of schools of all levels.
To ensure widespread health promotion, it is necessary to establish public parks, green spaces, rest and touristic areas.
In villages, districts, provinces, municipalities, special zones, offices and areas with dense population, public parks and conservation areas should be created and trees should be planted in substantial numbers to ensure clean and fresh air, rest and touristic areas should also be available therein.
Encouragement and Promotion of
Hygiene, Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
Hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion are the priority activities of the health sectors and administrative authorities at all levels that require encouragement and promotion through contributions from individuals, legal entities and organizations, of both public and private sectors, to meet social need on hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion.
Individuals, legal entities and organizations of both public and private sectors may invest in hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion in various forms, such as: establishment and implementation of revolving Funds, provision of clean water supply, latrines, impregnated mosquito-nets and others
Individuals, legal entities and organizations have the duty to contribute to hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion in the form of labor, funding and intellectual contribution towards the establishment of rest areas, promotion of sports, gymnastics and arts, creation of public parks and green spaces and the organization of foundations for health, including participation in various health-related activities.
Scientific research on hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion refers to searching for information of the causes of illnesses, diseases, and hazard risks to health in order to take preventive, limited and remedial measures against such causes.
The conduct of scientific research on the above mentioned activities shall be authorized by the Ministry of Health, and the result of such research shall be reported to the Ministry of Health and to the National Council of Science.
The health officers or staffs are prohibited to act as follow:
Individuals, legal entities or organizations are prohibited to act as follows:
Management and Inspection
The Government centrally and unanimously manages the activities relating to hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion throughout the country by assigning the health sector to be the principal in coordinating with the sectors of education and sport, information, culture and tourism; natural resources and environment, and other sectors and relevant local administrations.
The management and inspection organizations of hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion are comprised of:
- Ministry of Health;
- Provincial, Capital Departments of Heath;
- District, Municipality Offices of Health;
The role, rights and duties of the dispensaries are determined in a specific regulation.
In case of necessity, committees at central and local levels may be established.
To manage and inspect the activities on hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion, the Ministry of Health has the following rights and duties:
To manage and inspect the activities on hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion, the provincial, Capital Departments of Health have the following rights and duties:
To manage and inspect the activities on hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion, the District, Municipality Offices of Health have the following rights and duties:
In manage and inspect the activities on hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion, other sectors shall have the rights and duties to coordinate with the health sector of their own levels and relevant local administrations concerned in accordance with their own roles.
Inspection of hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion refers to monitor and inspection of the implementation of hygiene principles, hazard risks to health, cleanliness keeping, pollution control and measure application to be in conformity with the laws and regulations for the effective implementation of such health-related issues.
The inspection of hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion are of three forms as follows:
Regular inspection is an inspection carried out in regular manner in accordance with the fixed plans and time.
Inspection with prior notification is an inspection conducted out the plans when deemed necessary and with an advance notice.
Emergency inspection is an urgent inspection without any prior notification to the targets to be inspected.
Such inspection shall be duly and strictly conducted in compliance with the laws and regulations concerned.
Policies towards Persons with
Outstanding Achievements and Measures against Violators
Individual, legal entities or organizations with outstanding achievements in implementing of this Law, in particular, being a model of the contribution in activities on hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion, shall receive rewards and other policies in accordance with the laws and regulations.
Individual, legal entities or organizations that violated this Law or other regulations on hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion, particularly, the prohibitions as prescribed in Article 47 and Article 48 of this Law, shall be educated, disciplined, fined, paid the compensation for damage or criminally punished depending on the gravity of their acts as provided for in the laws and regulations.
Individuals, legal entities or organizations that have violated this Law and other regulations on hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion or prohibitions in minor cases, shall be re-educated and warned.
Any health officers or staffs who have violated the laws and regulations, and prohibitions on hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion by committing an offense that is not a criminal offense or that not cause serious damage shall be subjected to disciplinary measures as provided for in the relevant regulations.
Individuals, legal entities or organizations shall be fined in the following cases:
The rates in details of the fine are determined in a specific regulation.
Individuals, legal entities or organizations that have caused damage to activities of hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion shall be responsible for compensation payment for damage occurred.
Any individuals who violated this law and other regulations on hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion, by which an act has been committed and caused harmful effects to the health and life of human beings and such act constitutes an criminal offence, shall be punished accordingly to the Penal Law.
The Government of the Lao PDR is in charge of implementation of this Law.
This Law takes effect after the lapse of ninety days from the date the President of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic has issued the promulgating Decree.
This Law replaces the Law on hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion, No. 04/NA, dated 10 April 2001.
Any provisions and regulations which are contradicted with this Law shall be cancelled.
President of National Assembly
(Signature & Seal)
|Hygiene measures and equipment to be utilised by Health Care Facilities||A health care facility must be equipped with latrines, sufficient drinking and domestic water, a system for wastewater treatment, and a system for waste segregation, storage and disposal areas||Active|
|Hygiene of Health Care Facilities||A health care facility must comply with the hygiene principles and be free from disease transmission from patients, instruments, tools and medical equipment||Active|
|Maintenance of hygiene practices by business operators||Business operators must maintain the cleanliness, beauty and orderliness of hotels, guesthouses and restaurants and for safety of the guests away from infectious disease.||Active|
|Appropriateness of location of Hotels, Guesthouses and Restaurants for Hygiene purposes||Hotels, guesthouses and restaurants must be located in appropriate areas that are safeguarded against infectious diseases, accidents, nuisance and all types of hazards.||Active|
|Compliance with hygiene standards by hotels, guesthouses and restaurants||Hotels, guesthouses and restaurants must complied with the hygiene standards authorized for relevant business.||Active|
|Application of production standards and hygiene principles to the processing packaging, storing and serving of food and food products||Individuals and organizations that undertake the processing of food and food products, food packaging, storing, transferring and serving must do so in accordance with production standards and hygiene principles||Active|
|Environmental health||Individuals, legal entities and organizations concerned must assure the hygiene of animal enclosures, animal slaughterhouses, pollution control, rodent and insect borne diseases, nuisance, solid and wastewater disposal.||Active|
|Compliance with technical standard, principles and techniques associated with the production and waste disposal management||Individuals, legal entities and organizations producing goods must comply with technical standards for production, waste disposal management techniques and principles of hygiene in order to avoid hazards to human health and the environment||Active|
|Prohibition on false advertisement||Individuals, legal entities or organizations are prohibited from false advertising of products especially in relation to women who are breastfeeding||Active|
|Prohibition on persons from bribing health officers||Individuals, legal entities or organizations are prohibited from giving bribes to health officers or staff in relation to health activities||Active|
|Prohibition on persons from obstructing health officers in the conduct of their duties||Individuals, legal entities or organizations are prohibited from obstructing or not cooperating with health officers or staff whilst they perform their duties||Active|
|Prohibition on persons from throwing waste into water sources||Individuals, legal entities or organizations are prohibited from throwing waste, rubbish, animal corpse, dirt or chemical substance in or release waste water from manufactory or from other production facilities into water sources or other places without treatment process||Active|
|Prohibition on persons from using violence and threats on health officers||Individuals, legal entities or organizations are prohibited from using violence or threats on health officers or staff in the performance of their duties||Active|
|Prohibition on persons from violating laws and regulations on hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion||Individuals, legal entities or organizations are prohibited from violating laws and regulations on hygiene, disease prevention and health promotion.||Active|
|Key features of market location||Markets must be at easily accessible roads, with sufficient light and air ventilation, a wastewater system, waste storage and disposal system, water supply and clean latrines with sufficient number and must further be equipped with secure parking lots, and a proper system for the display of commodities.||Active|
|Appropriateness of markets in keeping with Hygiene Standards||Markets must be located at appropriate places far away from dirty sources, cemeteries and animal growing areas.||Active|
|Prohibition on distributing or selling expired food||Producers and sellers must not be authorized to distribute or sell the expired food.||Active|
|Application for a health certificate prior to producing and selling food||Producers and sellers of food must obtain a health certificate prior to engaging in these services||Active|
|Producers and sellers to undertake a health examination in applying for a health certificate||Producers and sellers of food must undergo a health examination in order to qualify for a health certificate||Active|
|Appropriateness of location of Schools and educational institutions||Schools and educational institutions must located in places that are far away from external nuisances, infectious diseases, accidents and hazards, and shall be equipped with sport grounds and places for rest.||Active|